Types of cargo
- General cargo
Goods which can be counted, that is, goods packed in containers or piece goods. This includes: boxes, bags, barrels, bales, rolling machinery. General cargo is usually transported by teams of parties, which are trucks list. General cargo must be prepared for transport are transportable state.
General cargo transported in containers.
- Liquid cargo
Carried in a liquid (oil and petroleum products, chemicals in liquid form, liquefied gases, food liquid cargo). During transportation, storage and handling of liquid cargo to consider their specific properties: viscosity, flammability, volatility, explosion, vapor pressure, the effect on the human body, the corrosive action on metals, etc. Liquid cargo transported through pipelines, in special tankers and railway tanks in tank containers.
- Bulk / bulk cargo
Consignments which do not have special packaging or containers, they are characterized by a physical property called flowability. This, for example, grain, coal, sand, coke, ores and ore concentrates, salt, dry building materials. In this case, bulk call loads that have free flowability, and for loading of bulk cargoes should be used special equipment - excavators, dump trucks, etc. Most
for the carriage of goods using trucks, the whole court, or individual holds, and unitized: containers, trailers, fleets rolltrailers, packages, and so on. Consolidation packages can mechanize the process of handling and increase the feasibility of the merchant fleet.
Regime divided into refrigerated cargo, hazardous, requiring special quarantine, etc.
- Refrigerated cargo
Goods that require a certain temperature and humidity conditions (frozen meat, fish, fresh vegetables, fruits, flowers, etc.). Without these conditions secure cargo transportation is not available or available only for a limited time. Transportation of refrigerated cargo vessels carried by refrigerated (the most economical form of refperevozok) refkoneynerami, the territory of the Russian Federation g / d refsektsiyami and wagons are thermoses.
- Dangerous goods
Cargo requiring special precautions, this includes substances and materials with physico-chemical properties of a high degree of risk.
Transportation of Dangerous Goods
Dangerous goods are divided into the following classes:
Transport of dangerous goods by all modes of transport in conventional transport units, but they require a certain way, the vehicle and the driver must have a permit to transport hazardous cargo. Vehicle (wagon, container, tank container, wagon) the special stickers security, in accordance with the class of danger. To keep in mind that the work on the acceptance and handling of dangerous goods at the terminals to be licensed.
- gas, compressed, liquefied
- flammable liquids
- flammable substances and materials
- oxidizing substances and organic peroxides
- poisonous (toxic) substances
- radioactive materials and infectious substances
- caustic and corrosive substances
- other dangerous substances
Small shipments, the dimensions of which are not sufficient to fill the entire volume of the vehicle. Transportation of cargoes is the alliance small shipments into one consolidated load to be transported on a certain route.
Scheme delivering cargoes usually consists of several stages. First, the goods to be delivered from the manufacturer to the consolidation warehouse, then the load is processed and for further transportation.
LCL freight carried by road (mainly from Europe) and sea containers (Asia and Europe).
- Oversized (design) loads
Goods which at least one dimension, excess of specified amounts of the vehicle and the laws of the parameters. For transportation is not standard (heavy and bulky) cargo requires special permission. in this category often gets different equipment, machinery, yachts and boats, turbines and other major part of the technical facilities and entire plants. Project cargo by road, rail, sea and river transport.
Each shipment requires an integrated approach to the selection of special vehicles, the route, the manner of loading and unloading. Possible to make additional technological equipment required for loading, securing and transporting oversized cargo. Also need to obtain permits for provozki such equipment.
Since each oversized delivery requires coordination and the development of a project to deliver, such goods are also called design.